November 29, 2023
ForewordHello everyone, I'm Mr. Lin, a building automation system planning and design diagram. Today I will share a very comprehensive solution with rich images to meet requirements of various kinds of circuits, if necessary, it is recommended to save for future reference. Text1.1 Building automation system1.1.1 System overview
This project is a sports center with tennis courts, indoor fitness center, golf, yoga room and offices. The building is designed according to five floors.
The building automation system will collect and control signals of electromechanical equipment of entire building, and realize automation of gym equipment control system. Users have strict requirements for indoor temperature, ventilation and other environmental conditions. museum, creating a comfortable building environment and achieving effect of double superiority in service and energy.
According to characteristics of a certain sports center, main purpose of implementing a building automation system is to analyze, classify, process and evaluate information of various electromechanical equipment in building, and adopt best control method to centralize equipment of each system Monitoring and control, so that equipment of each subsystems has always been in an orderly, coordinated, efficient and orderly operation, and to create an efficient, comfortable and safe working environment, reduce cost of each system, save energy consumption and daily maintenance to greatest extent possible. Manage various costs, ensure complete operation of system, meet needs of a special production environment, save 10% energy, save labor and maximize safety in order to extend life of equipment. Thereby improving modern management and maintenance of smart building at a high level, so that investment can get a good return.1.1.2 Demand analysis
The design of building automation system should fully reflect advanced nature of technology, system professionalism, function complexity, investment feasibility, design practicability and other special professional requirements for construction of weak current systems, so as to ensure smooth implementation of construction and normal operation according to schedule .
The building automation system can automatically obtain statistical information and equipment status information (normal, fault and alarm) uploaded by each DDC, and can also record, print, analyze and manage. It can perform functional integration, realize interface and interlock control with fire alarm system, smart lighting, monitoring and alarm systemtations, etc., and can also interface with other related workstations and collaborate with integrators to create a full-featured asset management center.
This program is designed for building automation system (BAS) of a sports center. According to characteristics of project, focusing on technical requirements of construction equipment monitoring system and system integration, focusing on advanced management concepts and open methods of intelligent building design, based on relevant domestic and foreign advanced successful examples and relevant design specifications, and combining our construction equipment Thanks to many years of practical experience in field of monitoring systems and system integration, design is carried out using modern computer technologies and automatic control technologies. The building automation system is equipped with a set of management software and a client management workstation located in fire monitoring center on ground floor for complete monitoring and control of supply and exhaust, water supply and wastewater in building. , and implement continuous monitoring and control, and air-cooled heat pump unit gateway interface, elevator / escalator system gateway interface, diesel power generation system, and high and low voltage power conversion and distribution system gateways are integrated through communication gateways to achieve secondary monitoring. The system collects, records and stores important information and data related to system and provides integrated management to improve operating efficiency, meet environmental needs of control area, save energy, save labor and maximize equipment safety. goal of life extension.
According to different settings of above systems in various functional buildings of sports center, scope of settings and monitoring contents of building equipment monitoring system are as follows:
Monitoring method and monitoring content
Air conditioning system
Monitoring and control of two-way supply air fan, air conditioning unit, fan coil unit, etc.; The fan coil adopts Modbus RTU gateway interface mode for centralized monitoring.
Air supply/exhaust system
Control and monitoring of exhaust and smoke exhaust machines, supply/exhaust air
Cold and hot water supply system
The control and management of air-cooled heat pump, chilled water heat pump, and air-cooled heat pump uses a high-level interface to read system parameters (TL protocol).ide Modbus, BACnet or OPC)
Water supply and sanitation system
Monitoring and control of drainage pumps
Electricity conversion and distribution monitoring system
The power conversion and distribution system is connected via gateway interface (Modbus, BACnet or OPC communication protocol)
Elevator monitoring system
The elevator system is connected via a gateway interface (Modbus, BACnet or OPC communication protocol)
The data center controller is installed either in control room or in floor control room (electric well), connection of data center controller with control center workstation is carried out via control bus. Devices that are installed more decentralized (such as wastewater pumps, tank level control, ventilation/exhaust fans, etc.) are controlled decentralized using expansion modules.1.1.3 System design
The system uses a three-layer network structure: control integration layer, field control layer, and field device layer.
Management integration layer: mainly consists of central graphical operating station, system server (master station), client (administrator workstation), etc., is fully based on TCP/IP and BACnet, its main function is to manage and control of whole system, and data transmission networks between different regions can be realized; at same time, control plane also supports client/server (client/server) modes of operation and web data access. The communication speed can reach 100 Mbps. This network layer is based on TCP/IP and BACnet and mainly consists of a central station and an application system router. The central workstation consists of a host computer, a color wide-screen display and a printer, and is core of BAS system, and can be directly connected to an Ethernet network. The controllable electromechanical equipment throughout building is centrally controlled and displayed here by built-in system software, and provides operators with many simple and intuitive operations, such as drop-down menus, man-machine dialogue, 3D color dynamic data. graphic display, etc. Usage function: provide users with a very good, easy-to-learn system control interface, operator can control entire automatic control system with mouse and keyboard without any software experience and knowledge.
Field control layer: It consists of a field control bus supported by a DDC controller and an expansion module, and is mainly used to monitor scattered electromechanical equipment in field.
Field device layer: it mainly consists of various types of sensors and actuators. It performs field measurement and signal acquisition for DDC, and receives and implements instructions foron implementation of actions issued by DDC.
The required monitoring equipment can be effectively controlled at workstation, and operator can understand at a glance how monitored equipment in building works. The system workstation is displayed in two ways: graphics and text, and display mode can be switched at will according to usage habits.
The building equipment management system uses modern computer technology and network systems to realize centralized control and automatic monitoring of all electromechanical equipment, ensure that all electromechanical equipment in building runs safely and achieves best condition, and saves energy. cost of operating system, timely detection of faults, increasing comfort and efficiency of staff in building, maximizing life of equipment.
When designing a construction equipment control system, we mainly adhere to following design principles:
The focus of building functions on comfort of indoor environment requires that control and management system monitor and regulate building equipment with high precision to provide most comfortable temperature and humidity to meet needs of use.
The building equipment management system regulates internal temperature of each zone to level required by project according to change in season, people and airflow, and refers to common international standards such as ASHRAE comfort standard and ISO7730 PMV thermal comfort index, etc. make environment in building most suitable.
The owner attaches great importance to operating costs, management costs and equipment management efficiency. The control management system can automatically and efficiently control energy consumption of equipment, which can completely reduce operating costs and equipment management costs and improve management efficiency;
Based on premise of providing comfort, building equipment management system intelligently organizes operation of equipment to minimize operating costs of various equipment in building. That is, system is optimally controlled with lowest power consumption value as control goal.
The building management system software has an energy-saving program that can control operation of equipment. For example, opening of air supply and exhaust system is adjusted according to time program, amount of fresh air is adjusted according to CO2 concentration in room, and air damper switch is controlled according to indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity to achieve optimal control, etc.
Automatic control is achieved through various control software, optimization control software and energy saving software to reduce energy consumption, and combined with energy-saving operation of automatic control system to reduce unnecessary energy loss. And aboutProvide preventive maintenance to equipment, and make preliminary repairs for possible equipment problems.
ØSafe and secure
If mechanical and electrical equipment in a building suddenly fails and stops, there will be serious consequences. A construction equipment management system can prevent this situation in following ways:
Check actual load and rated load of equipment at any time. As soon as equipment is found to be overloaded, it will be automatically unloaded immediately and an alarm will be sent to central control room to prevent damage to valuable equipment. ;
Monitor operating status of equipment, and as soon as one of devices is found to be abnormal, immediately call police and notify maintenance personnel for inspection to prevent a wider range of equipment failures;
Automatically record cumulative hours of equipment operation, and when cumulative value reaches specified maintenance time, it will automatically report to central control room and promptly remind need for equipment overhaul;
When a device in a device group fails and cannot continue, it automatically fails over to standby device;
In temporary power outages, when power supply is restored, system automatically performs a sequential start procedure, which can ensure smooth operation of equipment and avoid damage to equipment due to start-up failure.
With these detection, alarm and processing methods, building has effective preventive measures against sudden failures of electromechanical equipment to ensure safety of equipment and property.
The structure of system must be open and system must support TCP/IP, BACnet/IP and other bus methods to facilitate access to other systems in future.
By monitoring, diagnosing and recording working status of equipment, early detection and troubleshooting, timely notification of maintenance and maintenance, to ensure that equipment is always in good working condition and normal operation of building.
Effective equipment monitoring by construction equipment management system can greatly reduce equipment failure rate, and at same time allow maintenance personnel to work more efficiently and solve equipment problems in a timely manner, so number of maintenance personnel can be reduced integration The control method can reduce number of operators , duty and management personnel.126.96.36.199 Performance Requirements
1) BasicSystem tuning requirements: System tuning emphasizes practicality, it should be technically advanced and compatible with related systems, and pay attention to economic benefits of system, while reflecting overall characteristics of project. The system setting must be comprehensive and balanced, and main system must reach international advanced level.
2) The design of system should follow basic ideas of decentralized management, centralized monitoring and resource sharing. Distributed computer monitoring technology and computer network technology are applied. Monitoring and control functions are concentrated in central station and terminals with a significant operating level, and real-time monitoring and adjustment functions are performed by substations. Stopping central station will not affect functions and operation of substation equipment, and LAN communication control should not be interrupted.
3) The system must use a common bus network topology, and communication network must use a unified communication protocol. Integration between different systems of multiple vendors should follow OPC standard, which has good openness.
4) The system must be compatible with Modbus and BACnet protocols, and backbone network must be an open system that conforms to major international industry standard of TCP/IP communication protocol, in order to seamlessly integrate into integrated control system. .
5) The system setting should be able to adapt to use requirements of sports center project, create an efficient, comfortable and convenient building environment, and achieve goal of saving energy and labor.
6) Under premise of realizing sophistication and reliability, system configuration design should achieve goal of optimizing performance and cost.
7) Redundancy To meet needs of future expansion, DDC setpoint should provide a 15% headroom.188.8.131.52 Technical points
The main service functions of system are implemented through centralized monitoring and control of various types of equipment: ensuring operation of equipment in accordance with requirements of control, increasing overall level of safety and ability of equipment to prevent accidents;
Increase level of process control and reduce labor intensity by optimizing control; provide a reliable and cost-effective optimal control scheme for implementation of equipment control automation; continuously and timely provide up-to-date information and reports on operation of equipment for centralized analysis as basis for making decisions on equipment management. -Manufacture, realize equipment maintenance automation. To achieve above effects, system must receive accurate informationabout operating parameters of equipment, and this information is completely dependent on various sensors. Various sensors place high demands on implementation. This is especially important for its installation. The installation detection position and difference in process will make final parameters different. Therefore, in implementation process, special attention should be paid, and comprehensive testing must be carried out, combined with reasonable on-site installation, to ensure effect.
Energy saving instructions
Based on premise of providing comfort, construction equipment management system reduces operating costs by intelligently organizing operation of equipment. The building equipment management system monitors and controls equipment of entire building through a computer control program, and evenly distributes power consumption of all equipment, which allows optimal control of load power, effectively saves energy and reduces unnecessary waste.
⑴ The air conditioning system is largest consumer of energy among mechanical and electrical equipment in buildings, accounting for about 60% of total energy consumption. Through control of equipment monitoring system, all air conditioners and fresh air fans are monitored, and units are controlled to operate within reasonable temperature and humidity limits to avoid energy waste phenomena such as overcooling in summer and overheating. in winter. For example, system can automatically adjust cooling capacity of air conditioning equipment as room staff and heating equipment change (for example, adjusting number of refrigerators on and adjusting frequency of variable frequency hot water pumps). The power consumption of air conditioner in computer room during cooling and transportation is reduced to achieve goal of energy saving.
In winter and summer, to further reduce indoor fresh air energy consumption and ensure minimum fresh air requirements for staff.
When outside temperature of air conditioner changes, system can timely adjust working status of related equipment according to change in outside temperature. Especially in spring and autumn, when climate changes frequently, when outdoor temperature is relatively low, system can automatically adjust fresh air unit water valve, return air valve and middle/side hall skylight. make full use of fresh and suitable air outside and reduce energy consumption of air conditioner.
The system can also control start-stop and cooling tower fan displacement based on supply and return cooling water temperatures to maximize energy savings.
In addition, clogged air filter alarm can remind attendantlu about need for its timely cleaning or replacement; anti-freeze alarms can protect equipment, etc. All these factors play a role in energy savings. They have direct and indirect effects.
⑵, air supply and exhaust system, through this system, air supply fan and exhaust fan can work in a chain, and system can set running time so that fan can be turned on when needed. to avoid waste.
⑶. The working status of equipment included in building equipment management system is always under control of system. The building equipment management system can provide a complete record of operation of equipment, and at same time, it can print maintenance and maintenance notices regularly, which can ensure that maintenance personnel can service equipment in advance and without delay, so life of equipment can be extended, that is, operating costs of building can be reduced. The system automatically records cumulative operating hours of equipment. When accumulated value reaches set maintenance time, it will automatically switch to standby equipment and report to central control room at same time to equalize operating time of each equipment. and extend life of equipment. The electromechanical equipment included in building equipment management system allows this electromechanical equipment to perform all operations on a single interface, which greatly facilitates management of electromechanical equipment and reduces number of management and maintenance personnel. Improve building equipment management, extend equipment life, reduce equipment catastrophic failure and chain reaction, and greatly reduce building operating costs.184.108.40.206 BACnet technology
BACnet is an industry standard communication protocol.
Both versions of Apogee Advanced/Base support BACnet communication protocol.
TCP/IP communication protocol as communication medium.
Apogee Server: Other devices or BACnet systems can monitor, control and receive alarms from APOGEE system.
Apogee Client: Apogee can monitor and manage BACnet devices and can also receive alarms from BACnet devices.1.1.4 System software 220.127.116.11 Software operation
The system uses Windows 7 or Windows Server 2010 operating system platform.
The central system monitoring and management software uses Chinese Insight graphical software, and software adopts a modular design.
Man-machine interface in Chinese culture, easy to use for home users; dynamic graphic display, intuitive image.
Point database structure, table filling setting, and program editing method: system monitoring object is edited as an address point in software, according to system name, point name, monitoring type, time delay, control controlled Object mode is divided into small functional modular software. When setting up or programming, user only needs to fill in form or change it with mouse, which is very convenient to use.1.1.5 System functions
The building automation system uses advanced computer monitoring technology to centrally monitor various electromechanical equipment in building to provide necessary controlled environment, and on this basis, realize energy saving through optimal resource allocation and optimal operation. systems.
Subsystems monitored by this system include:
ØFresh air conditioning system
ØSupply and exhaust system
ØWater supply and sanitation
ØCold and heat source system (gateway interface)
ØFan coil system (gateway interface)
Elevator system (gateway interface)
ØTransformation and distribution system (gateway interface)
The system can automatically monitor and control operating procedures, operating parameters, start-stop status and fault conditions of each subsystem; nature of problem, specific location, equipment type, serial number, and troubleshooting information; system can provide data such as daily start and stop status, high and low peak values, real-time working values, etc. any time. At any time, monitor instructions sent by each device, and send appropriate communication control signals after system makes a decision according to information of each device.
The building automation system is a distributed intelligence system that uses a site-distributed direct digital controller (DDC) to perform real-time monitoring, protection, and control tasks of controlled equipment. When communication network fails, each direct digital control can continue its normal operation independently so that respective electromechanical systems are not affected. Each direct numerical control device can work not only independently, but also under guidance of a central control workstation.18.104.22.168 Cold and heat source system
The air-cooled heat pump is connected to building equipment monitoring system through communication and various parameters of air-cooled heat pump, such as operating modem, operating status, alarm, etc. Various commands to central station, such as remote start and stop signals, are transmitted to air-cooled heat pump.
Other equipment is sold by DDC, including air-cooled heat pumps, chilled water pumps, sensors, electric valves, expansion tanks and other equipment.
According to pre-arranged schedule, start and stop of air-cooled heat pump is controlled according to principle of "late start and early stop" to achieve goal of energy saving; control system automatically start/stop equipment in correct order to ensure safety of all equipment Reliable operation.
——Chain start sequence:
Electric butterfly valve of air-cooled heat pump unit→chilled water pump→unit water flow switch signal (feedback as circuit status)→air-cooled heat pump unit
——Network Stop Order
Air-cooled heat pump → (delay determined and adjusted according to equipment requirements, system load inertia, operating conditions and other conditions) → chilled water pump → unit water flow switch signal (feedback signal as circuit status) → air-cooled heat pump Electric throttle valve of unit
2) Object number control
According to measured water supply, return temperature and return flow, required cooling capacity is automatically calculated and number of air-cooled heat pumps is adjusted.
Load calculation: Q=K×M×(T1－T2), where:
T1: main return water temperature
T2: water supply temperature
3) Chain control
Chilled Water Differential Pressure Control: According to pressure difference between supply and return water in mains, bypass valve is automatically adjusted to maintain a constant pressure difference between supply and return water. And watch valve open.
Chilled water pump control: According to change in cooling load of return water and supply and return water pressure, operating frequency and number of circulation pumps are adjusted automatically. Make sure that pressure difference between supply and return water at end of most unfavorable circuit of system is not less than design value of air conditioner.
Child water pump equipment failure alarm control;
Monitor water level in expansion tank, if water level exceeds limit, and give a fault signal
Automatically start backup device
The control system comprehensively monitors working status of all equipment. When a certain part of equipment fails, it will automatically switch to corresponding backup equipment and put it into operation to ensure continuous and stable operation of entire system.
Balance run time of each device
The control system will automatically accumulate running time of each piece of equipment, automatically predict demand for cooling load, and thus automatically switch working state of each piece of equipment and balance running time of each piece of equipment. In addition, user can also select lead/lag air-cooled heat pump and sort operation sequence of equipment according to user's wishes.
Automatic restart after power failure
When a power failure occurs, all equipment stops for a certain period of time. After power is turned on, control system determines number of units to be restarted and order of units according to status of each air-cooled unit. heat pump and operating time of each equipment.
Cooling time limit
In order to reduce investment in electrical equipment configuration, start time of air-cooled heat pump unit can be set, and unit can be gradually loaded so that chiller gradually reaches full load. to reduce impact of starting an air-cooled heat pump on power grid.
The air-cooled heat pump is connected to building equipment monitoring system through communication and various parameters of air-cooled heat pump, such as operating mode, operating status, alarm, etc. Various commands to central station, such as remote signals start and stop are transferred to air-cooled heat pump.22.214.171.124 Air conditioners
The air conditioners in this project are all double-circuit, they are distributed in ceilings of office premises and public areas on each floor and maintain air temperature in room in a comfortable range.
1) Supply/return air temperature control;
2) Fan differential pressure monitoring
3) Fan operation status, alarm, manual/automatic fan status, check whether single fan air conditioning unit is under control of building automation system, and when unit is under control of building automation system. system, it can control start and stop of fan;< /p>
4) If primary filter is clogged, remind maintenance personnel to clean or replace it in time;
5) Cold/hot water control valve control and feedback
1) Use best control program to control start and stop of air conditioner in best time zone, to ensure that space in control zone is pre-cooled (summer) or preheated (winter) before operation;
2) According to return air temperature setpoint, return air temperature setpoint (adjustable) is controlled by automatic adjustment of electric control valve installed on return water side of water coil. , and PID controller regulates cold/heat. The water valve ensures that cold/heat supply of air conditioning unit is equivalent to required cooling/heating load, which reduces energy losses;
3) Start filter clogging alarm, DDC controller will monitor pressure difference at both ends of filter mesh, when filter mesh is silty, pressure difference at both ends will change if it exceeds set value, send audible and visual alarm to operating room station Displayed on screen to remind operator to organize appropriate personnel to carry out maintenance work;
4) Fan, damper, coil water valve chain program;
a) Start sequence: open coil hot and cold water valve, open air valve, start fan with delay and adjust cold/hot water valve;
b) Shutdown sequence: stop fan, close air valve, close hot and cold water valve;
5) When an equipment failure alarm or fire alarm is triggered, equipment stops and prompts operating personnel to remove it on site.126.96.36.199 Supply and exhaust fan
Ventilation system should include exhaust fan, blower fan, smoke exhaust fan and exhaust fan (excluding fire special smoke exhaust fan and positive pressure blower fan), etc. The ventilation equipment is still controlled by traditional DDC control box.
1) Current status;
3) Manual/automatic mode;
4) Start and stop control;
5) CO concentration monitoring (limited to garage on first basement floor, installation height 0.6 meters above ground).
1) Controlling start / stop of a conventional fan, start and stop according to a given schedule;
2) According to control of CO concentration to start and stop supply and exhaust fans in basement of car park;
3) The running time of supply and exhaust fans is summed up and when accumulated value reaches set value, a maintenance alarm is issued;
4) When an equipment failure alarm or fire alarm is triggered, equipment stops and prompts operating personnel to fix it on site.188.8.131.52 Water supply and sanitation system
The building automation system of this project only controls, but does not control, sewage pump of sump,
1) Measure ultra-high water level in catchment well;
2) monitor working condition of drainage pump;
3) Watch out for drain pump alarm;
4) Control manual/automatic status of drain pump;
1) When sump pump is under normal control; when system has a high water alarm, a sump pump alarm, or when sump pump is under manual/auto local control, system will prompt personnel to go to scene to deal with it.184.108.40.206 Fan coil control (modbusRTU hardware communication protocol)
1) Network control, each set of this control system includes a fan coil thermostat and an electric two-way valve;
2) The difference between actual room temperature measured by thermostat's built-in temperature sensor and room temperature setpoint on thermostat is manually adjusted, and electric two-way water valve automatically switches to make room temperature equal to set value;
3) Manually adjust three-speed fan switch on thermostat and turn equipment on and off.
4) The control center can control operating status of fan coil with network thermostat. When using thermostat, fan coil can be started and stopped at regular intervals, and room temperature can be forced to be controlled. must be installed by control center to realize maximum energy savings. Network thermostats can be linked using Before going to work, system automatically controls thermostat in corresponding room to enter energy-saving operation mode. During operation, you can adjust temperature at will according to your wishes and enter shutdown mode after end of operation.
5) Thermostat working principle: The thermostat controls central air conditioner fan switch and electric water valve according to set working state, wind speed and temperature, according to current ambient temperature, so as to achieve purpose of room temperature control.
6) It must be possible to install and monitor operating status of coil in control center via a fan coil system with a network management interface. The system adopts structure of decentralized control and centralized management. The system controls set value of air volume and temperature through fan coil control: according to actual application situation, fan starts to save electricity and water, so as to achieve higher economic benefits.220.127.116.11 Other systemsTopics
1) The cold and heat source system communicates with building automation system through gateway interface to realize monitoring function of related equipment, such as working status of chiller, fault alarm, manual and automatic control. status, start-stop control, etc.
2) The elevator system communicates with building automation system through gateway interface to realize monitoring function of related equipment, such as elevator working status, uplink and downlink status, alarm, etc.
The power conversion and distribution system communicates with building automation system through gateway interface to realize monitoring function of the related equipment, such as transformer failure alarm, etc.