November 25, 2023
ForewordHello everyone, I'm Mr. Lin. One of daily work environments for beginner network workers is computer room, but placing equipment in a closet, introducing power and network cables, and managing communication lines is a hassle for both beginners and veterans. Text
Organization of lines is main task of daily work. After all, if you don't organize them, it will be harder for you to maintain them later. And assessment of level of wiring of a worker in a small network mainly depends on his skill, attention, clarity and accuracy of marking. After all, a clean and well-organized computer room, in eyes of insiders, will really quickly increase favor.
1. How many closet organization principles do you know?
All this can be summed up in one sentence: clean layout, correct line order, clear labeling, and ease of maintenance.
Second, what is best way to route cables in cabinet?
How to properly route cabinet cables, most of them have already been decided during design phase of cabinet structure. Wiring common cabinets has following skills:
01 Use cable racks
Cabinet racks are 1U or 1SU sheet metal pieces with N prongs. Prong lengths can be long or short, depending on size of network equipment and turning radius of cables used.
02 Use Wired Bridge
The so-called cable bridge is a small, radius-shaped bridge structure protruding from cabinet, which can be understood as a protrusion on cabinet board where wires can be bundled.
Typically, a linear jumper will appear in following places: cabinet compartment divider, pillar, square hole bracket for equipment panel installation, etc.
03 Use coil
This is same as a cable tray that is commonly used to house optical fiber in communications equipment.
04 Flexible use of incoming (walking) bobbins
The so-called entrance (walking) wire barrel refers to location of wires on partition wall, when wires need to be laid in different compartments. As a rule, incoming (walking) reels appear in two compartments that need to be isolated from each other, for example, between equipment compartment and battery compartment.
05 Using links and shortcuts
This is also mentioned in base method above. It is very important that use of cable ties is simple and flexible, and label facilitates identification after connection and reduces maintenance complexity.
Third, what steps do you take to organize your closets?
According to network topology, existing equipment, number of users, user grouping and other factors, draw a wiring diagram and equipment layout inside cabinet, and then prepare necessary materials.
Tools: cable management clip, cable management frame, bridge holder, cable card, cable tie, tape, crystal head and cable handling equipment kit.
Especially important: label paper.
1. If you can use a cable management tool, do not use your hands.
2. The interface between crystal head and network cable must be seamless.
3. If you can use a line card, don't use a cable tie.
4. Lettering should be well spaced.
02 Cabinet Organization
We need to do following three things ourselves:
Tighten bracket first using screws and nuts supplied with frame
Secondly, disassemble cabinet and install movable wheels.
Third, adjust and add baffles to mounting frame according to position of equipment.
Organization of route:
Group network cables, and number of groups is usually less than or equal to number of cable management racks behind cabinet.
Tie power cords of all devices together, insert plugs into cable holes on back, and locate appropriate devices through separate cable management frame.
Adjust partition in cabinet to desired position so that administrator can see operation of all equipment without opening cabinet door, and add partitions according to quantity and size of equipment.
Make sure there is space between partitions. Place all used switching and routing equipment in a cabinet in accordance with a pre-drawn scheme.
Network cable marking:
After all network cables are connected, each network cable must be labeled, prepared sticker wrapped around network cable and marked with a pen (in general, indicate room number or what it is for), and identification should be simple. Easy to understand.
A crossover network cable can be distinguished from a regular network cable by using different colored stickers. If there are too many devices, you need to classify and number devices and label devices.
Fourth, how do you manage your wires?
01 Waterfall Shape Control
This is an old style of wiring that is still occasionally seen.
He uses Huaguo Mountain Water Curtain Cave artwork. The twisted-pair wires are suspended directly from switchboard modules, and with careful distribution, there is a very beautiful sense of hierarchy (24-48). per layer) root twisted pair).
Today, you can still see that back of some wiring cabinets uses a waterfall-style cable management process, meaning cables are not bundled in any way and deflect directly from back of wiring panel. to ground. This has advantage of saving labor and reducing interference between lines (crosstalk).
Waterfall cabling is most common cable routing method. This uses nylon straps to tie cables to columns and beams inside cabinet. Appearance is not taken into account, but only possibility of using space in middle is provided. for network equipment.
The advantage of this shape is that it saves manpower for laying cables, but it has many disadvantages, for example:
It is easy to damage shape when installing network equipment, and even phenomenon of difficult to install network equipment in place;
The weight of each twisted pair becomes a tensile force acting on back of module. If twisted pair is not connected to connection point, this voltage can separate module from twisted pair in months or years, causing disconnect to fail;
In event that a module in a switchboard needs to be re-terminated, maintenance personnel can only investigate “water curtain” for construction, sometimes by putting on dozens of twisted pairs, and since there are many. in light source, which makes it difficult to see clearly during termination, which increases likelihood of termination errors.
02 Return line control
Also called reverse routing. Reverse cable management is performed after switchboard modules are connected and tested.
The method is to run cables from module to outside of cabinet and at same time run cables inside bridge.
The advantage of this is that after test cable will not be repositioned because a certain twisted pair test has failed, and disadvantage is that two ends (cable entry and distribution frame) have been fixed. There must be a lot of dirty wires somewhere in computer room (usually at bottom of a cabinet).
Reverse wire management is usually manual wire management that is performed with naked eye and hands. Since there are a lot of cables in cabinet, they are crossed and tangled with each other when laying, so this method is time-consuming and cannot improve work efficiency.
03 Positive Linear Guide
Direct routing is also called direct routing. Front cabling is cabling before switchboard is completed.
Often it starts from cable entry of computer room (if it is a twisted pair cable from cabinet to cabinet, then from switchboard in one of cabinets), and cables are arranged one after other. ending, to rear end of patch panel module.
Finish and test after connecting.
Goal of positive linear leadership:
The horizontal twisted pair from cable entry of computer room (or network area of the computer room) to wiring closet is formed by bundles of horizontal twisted pairs of 16/24/32/48 ports in each switchboard as a single unit Wiring harness, all twisted pairs in each bundle all parallel (inter-wire crosstalk generated by parallel twisted pairs over a short distance will not affect overall performance, because large size of each twisted pair is laid in jumpers and wire tubes part, this part is scattered and not parallel), and all bundles are parallel ;
In cabinet, each bundle of twisted-pair wires is bent and tucked to back of each switchboard. The whole process still keeps twisted-pair wires parallel in wiring harness.
Pull twisted-pair cable corresponding to module from bottom of wiring harness at back of each module and secure it to wire support frame behind module, or thread it into module hole of distribution frame after checking. .
The advantage of secure cable management is that they can ensure that cables in computer room are neat at every point and that cables do not cross over.
The disadvantage is that if cable itself is damaged during refilling, failing test will result in re-wiring. Thus, a prerequisite for reliable cable management is sufficient confidence in quality of cables and threads.
Direct wiring control process:
Direct cable laying process requires sharing of wiring materials, and use of cable laying boards and cable laying tables, combined with cable laying process, can achieve a beautiful, reliable, fast and discreet effect at same time.
The following is most common way of direct linear control to introduce basic technology of building advanced linear control:
(1) Preserve distribution frame
Fix junction frame in place, mount bracket at back, and place panel paper with wire number printed on junction frame (or stick it on junction frame) at front. frame can be removed, module must be removed;
(2) Cable management board location
The direction of cable management board should be determined before refilling, so as not to change direction of cable management board during cabling, so that hole E1 can naturally align with hole no. Module 1. At this time, cable management board 2-5 holes of patch panel are parallel to 2-5 holes of switchboard.
Typically, this method can be used for positioning: First, place cable management board vertically behind module #1 with hole E1 facing #. According to future cable route, move to cable entry. machine room. When moving, make sure that cable management board only moves in parallel and does not rotate. When cable management board reaches cable entry, write down orientation of cable management board (mainly location of A1 hole), for later use of each cable management board;
(3) Loading cable management board
Next to cable entry in engine room, adjust direction of cable management board according to position determined by number 2, and pass horizontal twisted pairs into cable management board according to wire number according to cable arrangement. table (the side with words Facing yourself, thread enters board from side without symbols), this process is usually performed by two people:
One person finds wire number (just find number you need for this cable management board) and separates it from other cables, while other person threads wires into appropriate holes on board.
It should be noted that all twisted pairs must go through cable management board, i.e. cable management board must be located near cable entry to ensure that all twisted pairs entering the computer room are sorted out;
(4) Routing line
Use Velcro (or nylon cable ties) at bottom of outside of cable management board to bundle twisted pair wires through cable management board; direction shift, after moving 100mm, use Velcro. (or nylon cable ties) on outer base of cable management board to tie it back together (to prevent loosening of previous fastening). Wires around periphery of board and wires in middle of wire management board inside bundle. The relative parallelism of all twisted pairs, after determination, must be maintained to back of furthest module of distribution frame (that is, 24th module) at back);
Continue to move cable management board about 200mm and tie it with Velcro (or nylon cable ties) to outer base of cable management board. Please note that each wire must remain in same position as previous mount, and some wires are not allowed to lead out of outer layer. .
(5) Wire harness attachment
During cabling, if you find a cable hole in bridge frame or a cable tie plate in cabinet, you must tie cable harness to bridge frame or cabinet while tying harness to prevent it from slipping down.
(6) Corner controls
When a turn is encountered during translation, cable management board should be close to corner of turn and follow turn near corner. The wire is long, so if you turn it after tying it in a straight line, wire harness at corner is sure to deform).
This requires all harnesses to be tied in place and cannot be moved into place once previously tied.
When cable management board reaches bracket behind distribution frame, tie wire harness to bracket first, then move forward. Each time it reaches a module, tie wire harness once and then separate corresponding module. line number.
2 people must be involved in this process:
1 person splits line, 1 person runs line from back of switchboard to front of switchboard (if module can be removed, pass line from module hole forward), and 2 people sing and check line Does number match panel number on switchboard shield.
（8）Go around entrance again
Insert removed cable management board back into cable gland, use cable management table of next 24-port distribution board, repeat steps 1-8 in turn, and finish cable management work of next bundle of cables until all are complete.
Multiple line management (branch management)
If there are several switchboards in cabinet, wiring harness of each switchboard must be located separately.
However, due to limited width of backplane in cabinet (typically 100mm wide), only 3 to 4 bundles of 24 wire harnesses can be bundled side by side, and a maximum of 2 backplanes can be placed. on right side of 800mm deep cabinet (Horizontal twisted-pair wires in cabinet should be bundled on one side so as not to spoil appearance), that is, goal of tying 200 horizontal twisted-pair wires may not be achieved.
Currently, you can use an additional wire management method. First, use 8 x 8 wire management board to bundle 48 wire harnesses (6 x 8), and then add 5 x 5 wire management board to bundle wire harness to a certain height. After splitting into 2 bundles, continue to route cables to distribution frame.
The starting point for direct cabling can be a cabinet cable entry, a bridge opening, an equipment room entrance, or even the start of cabling from a work area panel (not recommended).