November 21, 2023

Advantages and disadvantages of different batteries in a UPS power supply

ForewordHello everyone, I'm Mr. Lin. Reliability and cost are important requirements for all data centers. UPS batteries are a major contributor to these priorities as data center managers demand energy-saving technologies to ensure business continuity, extend service life and reduce total cost of ownership (TCO). Choosing a UPS power source requires an examination of pros and cons of different battery technologies. Which one user should choose directly affects total cost of ownership (TCO), energy efficiency and charge level. Text

Advantages and disadvantages of different batteries in a UPS power supply

Traditional lead-acid batteries take over market

Traditional lead-acid batteries account for over 90% of UPS market. Due to their cost advantage and stable security, they are preferred for centralized procurement of UPS power supplies in data centers. lithium-ion technology in recent years.

This is because Li-ion batteries take up less space and have excellent fast charging capabilities. In addition, lithium-ion batteries require minimal maintenance and have a long service life. However, they also require special charging systems, battery management to operate safely, and are not easily recycled.

Therefore, it is worth considering alternatives to traditional lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries, such as thin-plate pure lead (TPPL) batteries, which offer similar performance advantages. AGM battery for higher energy efficiency.

Rise of lithium-ion battery technology

The growth of electric vehicle market has led to rapid development of lithium-ion battery technology. Lithium-ion batteries have a high charge capacity and fast charging capability. This function is very important in areas with frequent power outages. Lithium-ion batteries use a battery management system (BMS) to monitor charging efficiency and safety.

Charging speed, energy efficiency and battery life are all factors that make lithium-ion batteries attractive for UPS applications. These batteries require minimal maintenance thanks to built-in battery management system (BMS) diagnostics. Lithium-ion batteries have an estimated lifespan of 15 to 20 years at 25°C, but this has hardly been tested in practice.

Lithium-ion batteries are smaller and lighter than lead-acid batteries. This allows data centers to free up space by powering their UPSs and use it for data center equipment.

Pure lead (TPPL) battery alternative

Thin plate pure lead (TPPL) batteries are an advanced form of lead-acid batteries with advantages over glass fiber cage (AGM) batteries. First, thin plate pure lead (TPPL) batteries have very good fast charging capabilities. Depending on charging current and voltage settings used, they can be fully charged in 2.5 hours.

The basic lifetime of a glass fiber separator battery (AGM) is 5 to 6 years, while estimated lifetime of a thin plate pure lead (TPPL) battery is over 12 years. Despite compactness of lithium-ion batteries with thin pure lead plate (TPPL) technology, solutions with high energy density are possible.

Account securityumulators, recycling and total cost of ownership

Fast charging, low maintenance cost and long life are important factors when choosing UPS batteries. But other factors cannot be ignored.

1Safe transport

Lithium-ion battery shipping restrictions do not apply to lead-acid technology. Thin Sheet Pure Lead (TPPL) batteries are approved as non-hazardous goods and can be transported by land, sea and air without restrictions. But UN3480 Lithium Ion batteries must be shipped in a partially charged state (PSoC). They must comply with packaging regulations and are only for special cargo airlines. 2Recycling

Commercial recycling methods have been established for lead-acid batteries. 95% of batteries are recyclable and have inherent value at end of their life. Lithium-ion batteries can be 100% recycled, but there are no commercial recycling options. Depending on chemistry, end user may have to pay for battery disposal at end of its life. This is bound to change in future as Li-ion battery market continues to grow.

3Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

Ultimately, total cost of ownership (TCO) is a major consideration when choosing a UPS power source with battery technology. Initial investment, maintenance and operation costs, and lifetime all play an important role in determining total cost of ownership (TCO).

In conclusion, lithium-ion batteries are more expensive, but are designed for a longer service life, which has not been proven in practice. Lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries have different charging characteristics. UPS power solutions with installed lithium-ion batteries require a new charging infrastructure, increasing initial investment. On other hand, thin plate pure lead (TPPL) batteries use the same charging architecture as standard lead acid batteries.