November 18, 2023
ForewordHello everyone, I'm Mr. Lin. When hosting, buying servers, or renting and using cabinets, I sometimes hear words like noun 1U, 2U, 4U, or 42U. And what do these nouns mean? Follow Kuaiwang editor to find out!TextAbout "U" unit
U is a unit of measure that specifies external size of server and is an abbreviation for unit of measure. The server size is specified and server can be placed on a rack of a certain size. There are threaded holes to mount server on rack, so that it can be aligned with screw holes of server, and then fixed with screws, so that space required for each server can be conveniently installed.
Server 1U 2U 4U
The size specified by server is width (48.26 cm = 19 inches) and height (multiple of 4.445 cm) of server, and thickness (height)) is based on 4.445 cm.
The most common rack server sizes are 1U servers, 2U servers, and 4U servers. The dimensions of these servers are: 1U=4.445 cm, 2U=4.445*2=8.89 cm, 4U=4.445*4= 17.78 cm. In real world, 1U or 2U servers are most commonly used. Since service provider calculates fee based on space occupied by server, 1U server is most compact and has lowest price, but scalability of 1U server is not as good as that of 2U server. The number of hard disks 1U can be inserted no more than 4 3.5" hard disks, and 2U can be inserted 8 3.5" hard disks or even more. In addition, number of PCI slots is also different, 1U can have up to 2 while 2U can have up to 6.
General classification of 42U cabinets:
1) Width: 42U cabinets 600mm and 800mm wide, depth: 600mm, 800mm, 900mm, 960mm, 1000mm, 1100mm, 1200mm etc.;
2) According to actual needs. Except for actual size of 42U, width and depth can be customized according to actual needs.
The number of servers in a cabinet is limited. A 42U cabinet does not mean that it can accommodate 42 1U servers. Once server is placed, there must be space for heat and movement dissipation, space for wiring, and space for other equipment such as switches, firewalls, and monitors. Therefore, how many servers can be placed in a 42U cabinet must be calculated depending on specific equipment. So question is, how many server devices do you typically fit in a cabinet?
The number of servers deployed in a cabinet requires many parameters to be taken into account, such as physical parameters such as server size, power consumption, and heat dissipation, as well as parameters such as power, cooling, and cabinet load capacity. How to determine how many servers can be deployed When making a decision, you can focus on key parameters:
1) Reserved: reserve 1U between each device for heat dissipation, reserve switch position and consider PDU position;
2) Normally, a 10kW standby power supply is provided, and a static load capacity of at least 1200kg (determined according to computer room design parameters)
3) As long as there is no overcharging, total number of pieces of equipment in cabinet usually does not exceed 26 pieces.
In a cabinet, number of full 1U devices usually does not exceed 16, full 2U devices usually does not exceed 12, and full 4U devices usually have 4 to 7 sets.
The purpose of cabinet in data center room is as follows:
1. Enhance overall aesthetic of your computer room with a variety of appearance options
Based on installation width standard of 19-inch equipment, many manufacturers have innovated appearance of cabinet, and considering appearance of cabinet in single and multiple placement environment, Dinglong is only one in terms of appearance, they have added aluminum cabinets profile and based on original steel profile cabinets, developed various appearance options such as curved mesh door cabinets, arched mesh door cabinets and concave-convex mesh doors.
2. Save energy consumption in computer room, intelligent air supply cabinet
Users should solve following problems: Communication equipment will accumulate a lot of heat in case due to heat during operation, which will affect stable operation of equipment. The intelligent air supply cabinet can be configured according to position of each cabinet (such as number of installed equipment, air conditioning, power supply, electrical wiring and other infrastructure requirements), so as to avoid unnecessary waste and save initial investment and energy consumption, bringing more value to users. CroIn addition, value of smart air cabinets is also reflected in supporting full load of equipment. Generally speaking, traditional cabinets cannot be fully stocked with servers and other equipment, because installing a large number of devices can cause cabinet to overheat locally, causing servers in cabinet to fail. Each cabinet in intelligent air supply cabinet solution is independent, and equipment can be cooled according to operation of equipment in cabinet itself, so as to ensure that cabinet runs at full load, thus greatly saving space. computer room and reduce cost of enterprise. Compared with ordinary cabinets, intelligent air supply cabinets can save about 20% of operating costs, and energy saving effect is noticeable.
3. Realize smart cabinet control function Smart cabinet
Where high demands are placed on working environment and cabinet security in computer room of data center, cabinets with intelligent systems are needed to meet these requirements. The main intelligence is expressed in diversification of monitoring functions:
(1) Temperature and humidity control function
The temperature and humidity detection device is installed inside smart cabinet system, which can intelligently monitor temperature and humidity of internal environment of regulated power system, and display monitored temperature and humidity values on touch monitor. screen in real time.
(2) Smoke detection function
When a smoke detector is installed inside smart cabinet system, fire protection status of smart cabinet system is detected. When an abnormal situation occurs inside smart cabinet system, corresponding alarm status can be displayed on display interface.
(3) Intelligent cooling function
Users can set a set of temperature ranges for regulated power system according to temperature environment required by equipment in cabinet. When temperature in regulated power system exceeds this range, cooling unit automatically starts to work. Job.
(4) System State Function
The smart cabinet system itself has LED indicators for displaying operating status, data collection and alarms, and can also be intuitively displayed on an LCD touch screen with a beautiful, extensive and clear interface.
(5) Smart Device Access Function
The smart cabinet system can access smart equipment, including smart power meters or UPS UPS, read relevant data parameters through RS485/RS232 communication interface and Modbus communication protocol, and display them on screen in real time.
(6) Dynamic relay output function
When a pre-designed system logic link is received by smart cabinet system, it will send a normally open/normally closed message to DO channel of hardware interface to actuate equipment connected to it, such as audio. and light signaling, fans, etc.
What are types of server cabinets?
IT tools such as servers and network communications equipment in data center are evolving towards miniaturization, networking and racking. In era of big data, server cabinets have become an important part of it.
1. As a rule, ordinary cabinets can be divided into following types:
Depending on function: fireproof anti-magnetic cabinet, power cabinet, monitoring cabinet, shielding cabinet, security cabinet, waterproof cabinet, safe box, multimedia console, file cabinet, wall cabinet.
By application: Outdoor cabinets, indoor cabinets, communication cabinets, industrial safety cabinets, low-voltage distribution cabinets, power cabinets, server cabinets.
Advanced classification: console, computer cabinet, stainless steel cabinet, monitoring console, instrument cabinet, standard cabinet, network cabinet.
Special cabinets for installing servers, monitors, UPS and other 19" standard equipment and non-19" standard equipment, server cabinets used to integrate installation panels, plug-ins, subboxes, electronic components, devices and mechanical parts. and components, make it a one-piece back box. The server cabinet consists of a frame and a cover (door), usually has a rectangular shape and is installed on ground. It provides a suitable environment and protection for normal operation of electronic equipment. This is assembly level, second only to system level. A cabinet without a closed structure is called a rack.
The server cabinet has good technical characteristics. The design of cabinet must have necessary physical and chemical design, according to electrical and mechanical properties of equipment and requirements of environment of use, to ensure good rigidity and strength of cabinet structure. as good electromagnetic insulation, grounding, noise insulation, ventilation and heat dissipation and other characteristics.
In addition, server cabinet must have anti-vibration, anti-shock, corrosion-resistant, dust-proof, waterproof, radiation-resistant and other properties to ensure stable and reliable operation of equipment. The server cabinet should have good usability and safety protections, which are easy to operate, install and maintain, and can ensure safety of operator.
2. The difference between cabinet types
Although cabinets look almost same, there are several other types of divisions, most common of which are wiring cabinets and server cabinets. Cabinets used for wiring are generally used to house multiple limit switches, so there will be a lot of network cables that need to be led outside. This type of cabinet is not convenient for installing doors and is more like a rack. also cabinet manufacturers who use this product. It is called a mounting rack, cabinet used to house server must have a door and a lock, and this cabinet usually houses more expensive routers and firewalls.
Ordinary server cabinets have four cooling fans installed at top of cabinet, and bottom of cabinet is hollow to ensure a good constant temperature inside cabinet. The heat dissipation of servers at top of this cabinet is very good, but heat dissipation of servers in middle and bottom is not ideal. High quality server cabinets are ventilated and dissipated through densely spaced air vents on front and rear doors, and even with expansion of built-in air conditioning accessories, cold air of air conditioner can be used to distribute to each room. server in cabinet, which is very important for materials used, anti-corrosion and anti-corrosion properties of cabinet., load capacity has higher requirements.
How to choose a cabinet for a computer room?
With development of data center construction towards general accessibility, there is an increasing need for cabinet management in computer rooms. When purchasing cabinets, users should consider following factors:
1. Bearing Capacity Guaranteed: As density of products placed in cabinet increases, good bearing capacity is a basic requirement for a quality cabinet. A cabinet that does not meet specifications cannot effectively protect equipment in cabinet, and may even affect entire system.
2. Temperature control system: There is a good temperature control system inside cabinet, which can avoid overheating or overcooling of food in cabinet and ensure efficient operation of equipment. The cabinet can be selected from a fully ventilated series, or it can be equipped with fans (the fan has a lifetime warranty), and in a hot room you can install an autonomous air conditioning system, and in a hot room you can install an autonomous heating and heat preservation system. harsh cold environment.
3. Anti-interference: A full-function cabinet should provide a variety of door locks and other functions, such as high anti-interference, such as dustproof, waterproof or electronic shielding, and provide suitable accessories Support accessories and installation accessories make wiring more convenient and at same time easy to manage and saves time and effort.
4. Cable management: what to do if there is a problem with cable? In a huge computer room, it's still difficult to go through many cabinets, let alone quickly find and fix faulty lines. In terms of cabling connected to cabinets, today's data center cabinets have a higher configuration density, accommodate more IT equipment, and use a large number of redundant accessories (such as redundant power supplies, storage arrays, etc.), and equipment configuration cabinet changes frequently, data lines and cables are added and removed at any time. Therefore, there must be enough cable ducts in cabinet to allow cables to enter and exit from top and bottom of cabinet. Inside cabinet, cables should be routed conveniently and orderly, close to cable interfaces of equipment, in order to shorten wiring distance, reduce space occupied by cables, and ensure that heat dissipation airflow will not block wiring of device can be quickly found in event of a malfunction.
5. Power distribution system. As trend towards high-density IT installations in a cabinet becomes more and more apparent, power distribution system has become a key link in whether a cabinet can have an impact. proper execution. Reasonable power distribution is directly related to availability of entire IT system, and it is also an issue that has been ignored by many computer room managers in past. Due to miniaturization of IT equipment, density of equipment installed in cabinet increases, which creates a serious problem for power distribution system in cabinet. At same time, increase in number of input and output ports also places high demands on reliability of installation of power distribution system. Considering current dual power requirements of most servers, power distribution in cabinet is becoming more and more complex.
The design of a reasonable cabinet power distribution system should be based on principles of reliability as foundation, designing specifically for cabinet system, and full coordination and smooth matching with power distribution system. At same time, installation convenience and intelligent It has characteristics of professional management, strong adaptability, and easy operation and maintenance. The cabinet's power distribution system should move power supply closer to load to reduce points of failure in power supply's path. At same time, local and remote load current monitoring and remote control of power distribution should be gradually implemented so that power distribution control can be integrated into overall intelligent computer room control system.