April 24, 2023
Key points of computer room plan
The computer room is key to entire application system, and it should be place where entire network line is centralized. Its wiring is by far most complex in whole wiring project, because in general computer room there must be countless different cables, mainly including power plugs and network cables, in a large and medium-sized Internet, there can also be tens of thousands or even hundreds thousand cables.
As a network administrator, when there is a problem with network, I often find myself looking for answers in cable pile here. This requires formation of good working habits at beginning of wiring, mainly including neat placement of all kinds of equipment, neat and orderly sorting and bundling of all kinds of cables, and good job marking.
The computer room is important not only because it has a lot of cables, but more importantly, it is "central nerve" of entire application system. If one of devices or even one port is abnormal, it may cause entire Internet or a large number of users to not be able to connect or use data normally.
At level of machine room construction plan, following points should be paid attention to.
(1) The location of main computer room should be chosen accordingly
The choice of location of main engine room is very important, and various factors such as safety factor, environment and other distances from each work area should be fully taken into account. Since equipment in main engine room is generally powerful, it generates a lot of heat, so main engine room is required to have good ventilation, but it is not suitable for places where there is sunlight, and it should also be protected from rain, dampness , rat bites and other injuries.
Another important aspect is distance from each work area. If there are many buildings (5 floors or so), then it is best to choose a room in middle of building as main engine room, then distance between connected buildings will not exceed required twisted pair cable. than limit of 100m. If there are few buildings (4 floors and below), then main computer room is recommended to be arranged on lower floor, which is very beneficial for wiring of main computer room, and it is far from working area, so that users will not often smell equipment in main computer room All kinds of unpleasant odors are released, but do a good job of waterproofing.
(2) Select an appropriate routing method
Currently, there are two types of wiring: floor and ceiling. Obviously, flat type means that various cables are run underground through bridges or conduits, while ceiling type uses bridges or conduits and poles to hang various cables from ceiling.
The choice of routing method depends on specific situation. If main computer room is selected on ground floor of ground floor, it is recommended to choose wooden floor method. First, cables are buried in ground to make entire main computer room look cleaner; more often they dig bridges underground. And if it is in middle building, then, as a rule, due to fact that floor of building will not be very thick, excavation of bridge is in most cases not allowed. If new building has been thought out and planned in project concept, there is still a possibility. Just like a professional wiring room in existing commercial and residential buildings, its floor can be moved down a lot. It is convenient to install various bridges. and pipelines.
(3) Consider future maintenance and management practices
In terms of building a computer room, people only know that all kinds of equipment and server cabinets must be placed in an orderly manner. impact on future maintenance and management is inconvenient. Sometimes it is necessary to check a certain port number of a certain equipment or a fiber optic distributor outlet.inside box, since there is no space between server cabinets, it is impossible to accidentally enter and exit, which creates great difficulties in maintenance. , it can only be moving server cabinets one by one, and server cabinets are loaded with a lot of equipment, which is too heavy, degree of difficulty is obvious. Although we are not talking about final placement of equipment here, layout of main computer room largely determines placement of future equipment, so layout should take into account future placement of equipment and server cabinets.
As a rule, there are two different ways to place server cabinets: Tien type and Well type. Here, there is enough space between server cabinets with two placement methods. Managers can easily support front and back ports of any device. Among them, "Tian" placement is more suitable for layout of round machine rooms, and "well" layout is more suitable for layout of horizontal and vertical machine rooms. Don't sort by "one" font side by side.
(4) Power output and power plug type must be suitable
First of all, consider type of outlet, because computer power supply uses a rather unique round triangle plug, so when installing plug, pay attention to choosing right plug. This is usually a dual-purpose socket that simultaneously supports a regular flat triangle plug and a computer's special ring-shaped triangle plug. In general, a multi-function socket control module is used, that is, power socket, RJ-45 network interface and network cable socket are installed together on one power socket, as shown in Fig. 3-16. On other hand, it's best to install a few other common standard power plugs so they can be used up.
Some people on project think fork problem is very common and easy to fix, but I think it's one-sided. It is often seen that newly purchased power equipment does not have an outlet in main engine room, and some power cord plugs use European classic large triangular sockets, but there is no such thing in main engine room, or main engine The room lacks special sockets for connected computers , as well as a large number of power boards are connected, due to which initially clean and tidy computer room becomes very dirty. This is an unfavorable effect caused by lack of attention at beginning of wiring.
While most of equipment in computer room can use normal power plugs, some power is not suitable, such as UPS and servers, and some are also equipped with air conditioners. As with any household outlet, there is always a power limit, and it cannot be turned on at will. The maximum output power of UPS will reach several kilowatts, outputWhile conventional network switches and wireless routing equipment will only have a power output of over 100W, high-end network servers will have more than a kilowatt output power.
The switching power supplies used in these devices must be different, and they must pretend to be disassembled, especially UPS. And it should be noted that these sockets should not be used in same route, otherwise it may cause a fire due to too many connected devices exceeding their power limit. As a general rule, there should be at least two special 40A UPS or AHU power plugs in computer room, five special 20A plugs for servers or other power equipment, and others can be regular 10A sockets, but number should also be be sufficiently guaranteed. It depends on actual scale of online operations.
Because all kinds of computer equipment often require power plugs, it is recommended to consider equipment to be installed in computer room in future and corresponding output power requirements when connecting, and then integrate server cabinet structure, install power plugs with appropriate power in appropriate provisions (including power plugs, but also in moderation). Perhaps maximum volume of each socket should be correspondingly higher than maximum power of connected equipment. If you want to add connections to power supply connection board, power supply connection board must also meet relevant power requirements, including cables of power supply connection board.
It is best to choose mains plugs and connection boards from reliable manufacturers (the price of a good power board usually exceeds 100 yuan). I think this line can be distinguished by wire diameter of power plug. In general, a poor quality power plug has a tolerance of 10A or 15A, but wire diameter is very thin, and actual output power that can be provided is far from allowable value. .
(5) Cables are in order, classified and marked
Since there are so many different cables in machine room, if proper tying and marking is not done at beginning of wiring, then it is very likely impossible to know which network to connect to during actual installation of equipment line, select power plug. Do not underestimate them, otherwise previous work with electrical wiring may be left by wayside. Among them, most important is various low-current wiring.
Low-level wiring includes coaxial cables, twisted-pair network cables and network cables, etc. When laying cables, you should choose a professional fiber optic distribution frame, sort it according to required standards, rejectremove unnecessary parts and do not leave too much capacity, and then sorted and tied with polyester copper braid. If you really want to leave a longer container, you should tie unnecessary part. At same time, it should be noted that before tying wires, it is necessary to mark and write them well, otherwise it will not be clear to which equipment each wire is connected, especially when servicing wires.
Another thing to keep in mind when it comes to computer room design is wire connector. The actual wire connector type has been detailed previously. As new computer room is filled with high-performance computers and communications equipment, grounding requirements are strict. Grounding is an important measure to eliminate common impedance, prevent capacitor coupling interference, protect safety of equipment and personnel, and ensure smooth and reliable operation of computer software. Routing of wire connectors typically consists of running copper busbars for data signal ground devices under wooden floor of engine room to allow for various grounding devices in main engine room. The copper rods are then connected to site's weak electronic signal ground system using a dedicated transport line.
In machine room layout, power plugs and weak cables should be placed in a metal conduit for wiring. The actual size of metal wire trough can be based on number of wires and consider necessary development trend. depends on output. The distance between power plug socket and weak wire socket must be at least 5 cm, and they must not pass through each other to avoid signal interference with each other.